Prostatitis: the danger of men’s "second heart" inflammation?
Any man, even a teenager, runs the risk of diagnosing prostatitis. Most of the representatives of the stronger sex do not even suspect about inflammation until they see a doctor. The reasons for this are infections that penetrate the gland tissue. And if this is an acute process, when there is pain and discomfort, the man, if only because of unpleasant sensations, will go to the urologist. If the process is chronic, it may not know about it for years and not be treated. And it threatens with serious irreversible changes, which are difficult to treat, long and expensive, not always effective.
Prostatitis: what is its danger?
The prostate is one of the important organs of a man, located in the depths of the pelvis and covered with a bladder. The body has a modest size, round shape and a dense network of blood vessels. The prostate is important for men's health and sexual functions, highlighting the specific secret, it creates the desired concentration of seminal fluid, the basis of which is synthesized by the testes and seminal ducts. The secretion of prostate secretion makes it possible to ejaculate during sexual intercourse, contains biologically active compounds that help the male sex cells not to lose activity in the female body, enabling them to fertilize the egg. If an inflammatory process is formed in the gland area, prostatitis develops. But in order for it to form, special conditions must be created, healthy strong men do not develop prostatitis from scratch.
Causes of development, the role of infection
If a man is healthy, fully and properly fed, receives adequate physical exertion and is not infected with genital infections, including hidden ones, his immune system does not allow inflammation in the prostate to develop. Against the background of various provoking factors, bad habits, lack of activity and a sedentary lifestyle, which can lead to stagnation in the pelvis, the infection can spread upward through the urethra, penetrating the prostate and forming chronic inflammation that does not manifest itself for a long time. This causes significant male health. The location of the prostate makes it more vulnerable to the influence of negative environmental factors, various injuries. It lies deep in the pelvis, braided by a network of vessels that provide a full blood supply, which is necessary for its active work and the synthesis of secretions. If a blood in the pelvic area it stagnates, prostate juice does not flow regularly, then even opportunistic infection, getting into the urethra and from it into the prostate tissue, can lead to inflammation.
Factors contributing to inflammation
There are a number of external influences and adverse factors that can contribute to the spread of infection to prostate tissue and the development of the inflammatory process. These include systematic hypothermia of the legs and the whole body (winter fishing, work on the street, hiking). Permanent constipation or diarrhea can occur with intestinal problems due to inflammation of the prostate.
Office workers and drivers, men whose work is associated with prolonged sitting in a static posture, are at risk of becoming acquainted with prostate inflammation. The risk is even higher if the pelvic area overheats (heated seats). It is dangerous to maintain a sedentary lifestyle and a lack of exercise, prolonged sexual abstinence, as well as excessive activity.
Any gender-related infection plays a significant role, especially if the man was treated without the participation of a doctor. This threatens to become chronic, turning inflammation into a sluggish form. Contribute to prostatitis are the foci of chronic inflammation in the body (tonsillitis, kidney damage, carious cavities). All this leads to a weakening of the immune system, because of which the body can not fully and quickly give inflammation. Complements the negative impact on the immune system constant stress, lack of sleep and overwork.
What manifestations to expect: pain, impaired urination
Stand out sharp prostatitis, having bright and pronounced symptoms, as well as a chronic course of the disease. Depending on this set of complaints varies significantly. If the lesion is acute, an active inflammation forms that captures the glandular tissue and causes acute pain in the perineum. It is located in the base of the penis or under the bladder, typically feeling the pain inside the urethra, especially when trying to empty the bladder. Also, the temperature rises, there is a pronounced malaise, which causes most men to consult a doctor.
Quite another thing - chronic prostatitis, with his pain is not typical, there may be occasional barely noticeable discomfort when arising from the emptying of the bladder. Sometimes there are no complaints over the years, until inflammation progresses or prostate adenoma develops. In this case, the man is forced to consult a doctor because of problems with the genitourinary area.
When do you need a doctor?
Ideally, a urologist for men should become as mandatory a specialist as a gynecologist for women. You should visit it at least once a year, even if nothing is bothering you. But usually a man needs a doctor against the background of symptoms of chronic prostatitis - this is painful when trying to urinate, difficulty separating urine, the need to strain and make an effort. At the same time secretions from a urethra can be found. Men are often embarrassed, do not seek medical help for a long time for these symptoms, do not cure or take various drugs widely advertised on TV. As a result, problems with erection and sexuality are gradually joining, as the vessels of the penis, which are closely related to the prostate, suffer. There is irritability and nervousness, there is discontent with life and its own strength.
But the timely detection of prostatitis can quickly cure him, using a whole range of modern drugs, including antibiotics, as well as non-drug means - physical therapy, massage, spa treatment. It helps to restore the function of the body for a long time.
Prostatitis: causes, symptoms, risk factors
Bacteria that have entered the male urogenital system can affect the prostate and cause inflammation. Doctors call this condition bacterial prostatitis. According to the doctors, prostatitis - A fairly common problem in men. And if earlier it was considered a problem of men at the age, then today it is considerably "younger". MedAboutMe will tell about the causes, types and symptoms characteristic of prostatitis, treatment options.
Types of prostatitis
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate, when the cause was an infection, then doctors talk about the acute and chronic form of the disease. Each of them has specific symptoms, different treatment and consequences:
- Acute Bacterial Prostatitis Characteristic acute onset, symptoms appear suddenly. The cause of their appearance is always an infection. This condition requires early treatment, otherwise there is a high probability of serious complications.
- Chronic bacterial prostatitis The chronic course of prostatitis causes symptoms that sometimes appear and then disappear, and this scenario is observed for several months. If it is the infection that caused the inflammation, then this condition is called chronic bacterial prostatitis.
What are the causes and risk factors?
Acute prostatitis is formed as a result of a bacterial infection. Inadequate treatment of urinary infections, for example, when a course of antibiotics was incomplete or patients currently prescribed medications independently, without visiting the doctor - The causes of the transition of acute inflammation to chronic.
Doctors identify risk factors that significantly increase the likelihood of developing prostatitis:
- Use of urinary catheter in the recent past;
- Untreated bladder infections;
- Injuries to the pelvic organs in the past;
- Immunodeficiency disorders;
- Diseases of the oral cavity, mainly periodontitis, less often - caries;
- Kidney disease;
- Passive lifestyle;
- Congestion in the pelvis, for various reasons.
Symptoms of prostatitis depend on its type, that is, inflammation occurs in a chronic or acute form.
In the acute form of inflammation, severe symptoms appear suddenly, and the disease itself is acute and difficult. The characteristic symptoms are:
- Deterioration of general well-being;
- Pain when urinating;
- The appearance of impurities in the urine, an unpleasant odor;
- Urination is difficult, but urges are more frequent;
- Fever, intoxication symptoms;
- Some patients report nausea, even vomiting;
- Pain in the lower abdomen, which increases with urination.
- Acute bacterial prostatitis requires immediate medical attention.
Chronic bacterial prostatitis
Typical symptoms may be mild or moderate, their development and manifestation gradually. Doctors note that the characteristic symptoms may disappear, and then reappear. Chronic will be considered prostatitis, the symptoms of which persist for 3 months or more. These include:
- Sharp urge to urinate, with the ability to endure virtually absent;
- Pain in the bladder;
- The appearance of burning pain when urinating, the urine is excreted with difficulty;
- An increase in the number of urges to the toilet;
- Lower abdominal pain, back and groin;
- Painful ejaculation;
- Erectile disfunction.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of complaints, inspection. Also, the doctor may recommend additional methods of research, among them include:
- Blood and urine tests;
- Smear from the urethra to exclude infection;
- Rectal examination of the prostate;
- Visual methods of research, to avoid blockage of ducts and other problems in the urinary tract and prostate;
- Prostate biopsy - to exclude dangerous pathologies. Such a study is prescribed for suspected neoplasm in the prostate gland.
Based on the results obtained, the doctor determines the course of treatment.
What treatment do doctors offer?
Treatment of prostatitis always requires an integrated approach. Doctors say that it can help both the prescription of drugs and herbal medicine.
Assign medication can only doctor, focusing in their choice on the data obtained research. As a rule, a course of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs is prescribed. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with a pronounced analgesic effect can be recommended for pain relief.
The need for surgery is determined individually. This method is rarely used and has a number of strict indications.
During the operation, doctors can remove scar tissue, which will improve the flow of urine and reduce the symptoms of prostatitis.
The treatment should take place at home, the doctor will tell you about the necessary actions. It is worth noting that such recommendations can not get rid of the infection, but to alleviate the symptoms - quiet. These recommendations include:
- Follow the drinking regime;
- Exclude from the diet of alcohol, caffeine, spicy foods;
- Avoid actions that can worsen the condition, such as cycling, horses;
- Abandon sedentary lifestyle;
- Practice kegel exercises.
Some patients note that some alternative treatments, such as acupuncture and herbal medicine, provide relief.
Doctors say that all men who have symptoms of infection and inflammation of the prostate should immediately see a doctor. It is worth remembering that in the absence of treatment or, if it was wrong, the likelihood of complications significantly increases, including:
- Prostate abscess;
- Chronic pain;
- Erectile dysfunction, up to complete impotence;
- Persistent urinary problems;
- Kidney disease.
Only a doctor can help alleviate the symptoms and cure the cause of their appearance. It is also worth remembering that the symptoms of a chronic bacterial infection can completely disappear only after several months of active treatment, while in the acute stage of inflammation only 7-14 days are enough for recovery.
Chronic prostatitis: is it treated with antibiotics?
Men's health is always a burning problem at any age, and the most acute problem is with prostatitis. If manifestations of inflammation and sharp pain still force a man to go to a doctor immediately and be treated, then the presence of a chronic and scarce symptoms process is often considered insignificant. It is not treated and is launched to such a stage when tissue changes are already irreversible, potency and urination are affected, and prostate adenoma is formed. According to the researchers, the role of infection is large in the formation of chronic prostatitis, due to which sluggish inflammation of the prostate is maintained. It requires antibiotic treatment in conjunction with additional measures.
Chronic prostatitis: types of pathology
By their origin today, chronic prostatitis is divided into infectious, caused by bacterial infection and abacterial (non-infectious). If the cause is the penetration of microbes into the gland tissues, a sluggish, chronic inflammation is formed, supported by colonies of microbes that are almost always present in the tissues. The diagnosis is made on the basis of prostate secretion cultures with the identification of microbial colonies. Chronic non-microbial prostatitis usually proceeds as an autoimmune inflammation, in the study of prostate juice, no bacteria are sown, and all the symptoms of the inflammatory process, leading to functional problems of the gland, are present.
Often, chronic prostatitis forms an asymptomatic course: although, according to research results, the inflammatory process in prostate tissues is present, but the man does not feel any external signs and discomfort. A separate option is the course of chronic prostatitis in the form of permanent pelvic pain. Against the background of the existing inflammatory changes, chronically occurring pains in the perineal, pelvic, and genital areas are typical.
Manifestations of prostatitis: is the pain typical for a chronic course?
If we talk about the process of inflammation in the development of chronic lesions of the prostate, it is not as pronounced as during an acute illness. Therefore, the whole manifestation is not very pronounced, and often the man may not attach importance to them. So, pain or burning along the urethra is periodically felt, increasing during the period of intimate intimacy or when a man urinates. Also felt heaviness or slight pain in the projection of the perineum, extending into the rectum. Periods can feel discomfort and aching pain in the sacrum or lower abdomen, groin, urge to urinate sharply increased. In addition, intimate disorders are typical for prostatitis - weakening of erection with tendencies to premature ejaculation, weakening of craving and lack of orgasm. It is important to note the fact that prostatitis in a quarter of men has no clinically pronounced manifestations, and therefore patients do not rush to the doctor for treatment.
How the diagnosis is set: detection of inflammation
To begin with, it is important for the doctor to find out the main complaints of the patient, which are typical for prostatitis in chronic form, and details of the development of pathology. It is important not to conceal all the manifestations from the doctor, even if they are very delicate in nature - this is the lack of pleasure during intercourse, weakening of erection, problems with arousal. They may indicate the presence of inflammation in the prostate, along with pain and discomfort. No less important will be a full examination with palpation of the gland (probing it through the rectum), as well as obtaining prostate secretion and subsequent seeding. This allows you to determine the inflammation and its nature (microbial or aseptic), as well as changes in the prostate (induration, tenderness and swelling). Due to this study, it is possible to simultaneously conduct a differential diagnosis of prostatitis with hemorrhoids, adenoma, and cancerous lesions of the anogenital zone. Complement the cycle of ultrasound examinations of the prostate with obtaining data on the nature of inflammation, the degree of its spread and changes in the body. At the expense of seeding, the type of microbial flora responsible for inflammation, as well as the sensitivity of microbes to antibiotics, is detected. It is also important to conduct an analysis of PSA (prostate-specific antigen), which will help in the diagnosis of adenoma and oncological degeneration in the prostate.
Methods of treatment: antibiotics and not only
The process of treating chronic prostatitis, when compared with the treatment of acute inflammation, is not an easy task, it is important to carefully and meticulously follow all the doctor's instructions. The scheme includes not only antibiotics to suppress the infection, but also a course of physiotherapy and some non-drug methods. Only an integrated approach can suppress inflammation and eliminate the infection completely.
First of all, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics, which are necessary to suppress the activity of the microbial flora supporting the inflammatory process in the tissues of the gland. Most commonly used today are antibiotic groups such as macrolides and tetracyclines, although other groups can be used (monomycin, kanamycin), sometimes the doctor may prescribe nitroxoline or trimetaprim . The type of drug, its dose and duration of administration depend on the severity of the lesion, the presence of symptoms and the general condition. Antibiotics usually take up to 2 weeks. At the end of the course of treatment, a control seeding of prostate secretions is given in order to evaluate the effectiveness of therapy.
What else is applicable in the treatment of prostatitis?
In addition to antibacterial therapy, treatment requires the implementation of prostate massage, which helps in restoring blood circulation to the organ and full outflow of fluid. This eliminates congestion and reduces the activity of inflammation. This procedure is indicated only for chronic prostatitis, on the background of an acute course or in the presence of anus fractures, hemorrhoids, it is prohibited. The combination of antibiotic therapy and prostate massage is most effective in treatment.
As additional drugs in the treatment can be used adrenergic blockers, which remove smooth muscle spasm and improve the flow of urine and prostate secretion. Also shown are methods of physiotherapy, selected individually.
Calculous prostatitis: symptoms and treatment
Calculous prostatitis is a pathological condition that has a secondary nature. In other words, the disease acts as a complication of a chronically occurring inflammatory process in the tissues of the prostate gland. At the same time in the excretory ducts or acini of the prostate various stones are formed in size. The danger of such a pathology is that it can cause inflammation of the seminal vesicles, formation of pus-filled cavities in the prostate gland, and so on.
Calculous prostatitis is the most commonly diagnosed complication of a chronic inflammatory process in the prostate. About eight percent of males face it. In this case, the peak incidence falls in the age range from thirty to fifty-nine years. Older men also often suffer from this pathology.
An interesting point is that among men up to the age of forty, the main cause of calculous prostatitis is chronic inflammation associated with sexually transmitted diseases. Among males older than forty years, the leading risk factor is benign prostatic hyperplasia.
The mechanism of occurrence of this disease lies in the fact that, against the background of inflammatory changes in the prostate, congestive processes are progressing. Such factors as lack of regular sex, low level of motor activity, and prostate adenoma can lead to stagnation of secretion in the prostate gland. Another extremely important point is the penetration of urine from the urinary tract into the ducts of this organ. The urine contains salts, which, when cast into the prostate gland, turn into crystals, become more dense and eventually turn into stones.
Pathological narrowing of the urethra, various traumatic effects, loss of the physiological muscle tone of the prostate gland and many other factors can lead to urine being thrown from the urethra to the prostate ducts.
The classification of calculous prostatitis includes its primary and secondary forms. In the primary form, calculi are formed immediately in the region of the acini or excretory ducts of the prostate gland. The secondary form is established if the stones were first formed in the organs belonging to the urinary system, and from there migrated to the prostate.
Formed stones with such a disease can be single or multiple. Their diameter may also vary significantly for each individual patient. However, on average, the calculus is between two and a half to four millimeters. The most common stones in this pathological process are oxalates, phosphates or urates.
Symptoms for calculous prostatitis
Often such a disease for a long time is not accompanied by any clinical manifestations. This situation is the most dangerous, as inflammatory changes progress and cause various morphological changes in the tissues of the prostate gland. In general, this pathology proceeds almost as well as the usual chronic prostatitis.
The leading symptoms in this pathological process are pain and impaired urination. Pain syndrome proceeds according to the type of attacks and has a dull or aching character. It is localized in the genital area and may radiate to the sacrum or tailbone. As a rule, a significant increase in pain is observed during any physical exertion, during sexual intercourse or during prolonged sitting position. The intensity of the pain syndrome may vary. Some patients indicate mild discomfort, while others, which occur most often, to very severe pain, disrupting their habitual way of life.
Other characteristic symptoms are an increase in the urge to urinate and painful process. As a rule, the patient experiences various difficulties during urination, namely, the urine stream becomes intermittent and weakened, there is a feeling that the bladder is not fully emptied. Sometimes with this pathology there is a complete urinary retention. Often from the urethra after any physical activity follows the secret of the prostate gland. In addition, blood can be detected in the urine.
Such symptoms as erectile dysfunction, pain during ejaculation, early or difficult ejaculation are mandatory. Against the background of all of the above, a sick person complains of a decrease in sexual desire, even to his complete absence. The resulting sexual dysfunction significantly affects the psychological state of men. He becomes irritable, restless, and so on.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
You can suspect this disease on the basis of patient complaints and palpable examination of the prostate gland. The diagnosis must be confirmed by transrectal ultrasound. Additionally can be assigned urography, magnetic of resonance imaging or computed tomography. An important point is to conduct a series of tests aimed at determining the infectious flora that provoked the development of chronic inflammation.
Treatment of calculous prostatitis involves the appointment of antibacterial and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, various physiotherapy procedures, as well as herbal medicine. The destruction of the stones is carried out using a laser. In some cases, surgery may be required.
Prevention of calculous prostatitis
Priority method prophylaxis is the timely detection and treatment of chronic inflammatory process in the prostate gland. Common preventive measures include protection against sexually transmitted infections and maintaining a normal level of sexual activity.
Prostate adenoma: causes, symptoms and treatment
Prostate adenoma is also called benign prostatic hyperplasia. This disease is extremely common among older men. It is characterized by the formation in the prostate gland of a benign tumor originating from glandular tissue or connective tissue stroma. The resulting pathological process leads to a gradual squeezing of the urethra, due to which the urination process is disturbed.
As we have said, the incidence of prostate adenoma among men is very high. In most cases, men over the age of forty seek medical help for this problem. In the younger age group, this pathology is relatively rarely diagnosed. It is estimated that by the age of eighty more than seventy percent of the male representatives suffer from this disease. Talking about the exact prevalence of this pathological process is quite difficult due to the fact that many men are not engaged in its treatment to the last. This approach is fundamentally wrong, since benign prostatic hyperplasia can lead to the development of chronic renal failure.
Causes of Prostate Adenoma
Currently, the question of why prostate adenoma is formed is still not fully understood. It is assumed that one of the leading factors is the hormonal imbalance in the male body. This theory is confirmed by the fact that with age the number of people facing this problem increases significantly. The older a man becomes, the less he has androgen production. Estrogens in turn increase. It is believed that it is with this moment that the excessive proliferation of prostate cells is associated with.
Previously, many scientists have said that there is a relationship between chronic prostatitis and such a disease. However, no evidence of this theory was obtained. Similarly, it was not possible to confirm the dependence of this pathological process on the level of sexual activity, bad habits and past venereal diseases.
Symptoms indicating prostate adenoma
In modern medicine, there are four degrees of prostate adenoma, which differ on the basis of concomitant functional disorders. The first degree is called compensated. Initial changes lead to the first clinical manifestations; however, the functional activity of the kidneys and the upper urinary tract does not suffer. Second degree - subcompensated. The resulting violations become much more pronounced. The kidneys and urinary tract work much worse. In this case, the body still manages to cope with this pathological process. The third degree is called decompensated. It is accompanied by progressive renal failure. The fourth degree or terminal is characterized by water and electrolyte disorders and increasing uremia, which are fatal.
Each of the above degrees is accompanied by its own symptoms. At the first degree, a sick person draws attention to the fact that the urine during the process of urination began to stand out with difficulty. The bladder, trying to compensate for this, undergoes hypertrophic changes. There are mandatory complaints of increased urge to urinate, including at night. At first, a person is inclined to explain the violations that have appeared by other reasons, for example, an excessive amount of alcohol consumed. As the prostate adenoma progresses more and more, the urethra is even more compressed, and the process of urination becomes even more difficult.
At the second degree, exactly the same clinical picture is preserved. However, the examination reveals that from a hundred to two hundred milliliters of urine remains in the bladder after urination. Immediately the bladder itself grows in size, and urine flows out of the urethra sluggishly and intermittently. There are symptoms such as expansion of the upper urinary tract and depression of the functional activity of the kidneys.
The third degree is established if the bladder is over- stretched and practically loses its ability to contract. In this regard, to urinate in a sick person does not work even with considerable effort. The ureters are maximally expanded, symptoms that indicate chronic renal failure are progressing. These include a feeling of constant thirst, dry mouth and more. Often there is pain in the lower abdomen, to which the body gradually adapts.
At the fourth degree, a rapid deterioration of the general condition of a sick person is noted, the work of vital organs is disturbed, which leads to a fatal outcome.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
The first diagnosis of this disease consists of a concomitant clinical picture. The diagnosis is confirmed by urological examination, urinalysis, and kidney tests. An ultrasound examination of the prostate gland, uroflowmetry and excretory urography are mandatory . Occasionally, a prostate biopsy may be required, followed by a histological examination.
Conservative treatment of prostate adenoma is used only in the initial stages, or if there are strict contraindications to surgical intervention. Various herbal remedies, alpha- blockers and 5-alpha reductase blockers can be used . Surgical treatment gives the best effect. It can be carried out using open access or endoscopically.
As such methods prophylaxis This pathological process does not exist. The most important point is to seek medical attention in a timely manner when there are any troubling moments.
Symptoms for chronic prostatitis
Chronic prostatitis is one of the most common problems among men. This disease is characterized by the development in the prostate gland of a long-lasting inflammatory process, which leads to various functional and morphological changes. Such a pathology in the absence of the necessary treatment often becomes the cause of sexual dysfunction, prostate adenoma and many other dangerous complications.
The prevalence of chronic prostatitis among the population is quite high. According to the latest data, among all men living in Russia, this pathological process occurs in about nine percent. The proportion of such violations among all causes of appeals to the urologist accounts for about thirty-five percent. Most often with this inflammation faced by men who are sexually active, namely at the age of twenty to forty years.
Often this disease has an infectious etiology. In this case, the infection can get into the prostate gland in a variety of ways. Ascending and descending ways of infection are of primary importance. Speaking of the ascending path, we mean the spread of infectious flora through the urethra. The descending path is realized if infected urine is thrown into the prostate gland from the bladder. In some cases, pathogenic flora enters the prostate using the hematogenous or lymphogenous pathway from remote infectious foci.
Among bacteria, E. coli, Proteus and Staphylococcus contribute to the development of chronic prostatitis most frequently. Viral and fungal flora can also play a role. We should also mention the specific inflammatory process that is caused by pathogens of sexually transmitted diseases.
As for the predisposing factors for the formation of a chronic infection process in the prostate, these include existing infectious foci in the body, severe hypothermia, lowered levels of immune protection, unbalanced nutrition, physical exhaustion and much more.
Sometimes chronic prostatitis has a non-infectious nature. At the heart of its occurrence are stagnant processes in the prostate gland. A low level of physical activity, interrupted sexual intercourse, prolonged sexual abstinence, various bad habits, as well as existing pathologies from other pelvic organs can contribute to this.
Classification of chronic prostatitis
As we have said, chronic prostatitis is divided into infectious and non-infectious variants. The classification of the non-infectious variant includes two of its forms. The first form occurs when, during a laboratory study, an inflammatory component is found in the prostate gland. In the second form, the inflammatory component is absent.
Separately, it should be said that such inflammation often occurs in asymptomatic form. In this case, there are no complaints of the sick person. However, prostate secretions show signs suggestive of an inflammatory response. It is this form that is the most dangerous, since it often leads to the spread of the inflammatory process to other nearby organs.
Symptoms for chronic prostatitis
The severity of symptoms in this disease in each individual patient may vary significantly. It directly depends on the intensity of the pathological process. The earliest complaints include pain and impaired urination.
Pain syndrome, as a rule, is always present and has a nagging character. It is localized in the pelvic region and can spread to the external genitals. Characterized by increased pain during urination, as well as during intercourse or with prolonged sexual abstinence. Sometimes a sick person says that pain causes only mild discomfort. Other patients complain that because of the pain they cannot sleep, work fully and so on.
Obligatory problems with urinary function are noted. There are symptoms such as increased urge to urinate, the need to make efforts during this process, and the feeling that the bladder is not completely empty.
As the disease progresses in a sick person, sexual function is impaired. There are various difficulties with erection, early ejaculation, decreased sexual desire and so on. Against this background, a man becomes withdrawn, he has psychological problems.
Sometimes this pathology is exacerbated. In this case, symptoms such as fever, weakness and malaise, as well as an even greater increase in all the above local manifestations, appear.
Diagnosis and treatment of inflammation
Such inflammation is primarily diagnosed on the basis of complaints from a sick person. To confirm the diagnosis, a digital rectal examination and ultrasound diagnosis are mandatory. Assigned to the analysis of secretions secreted from the prostate, as well as bacteriological examination of the smear. Additionally, a number of instrumental methods are used to assess urodynamic disorders, for example, uroflowmetry.
When the infectious nature of chronic prostatitis is shown the use of antibacterial drugs. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, alpha- blockers and special therapeutic massage of the prostate gland are used. Various physiotherapeutic procedures have a good effect.
Prevention of chronic prostatitis
For prophylaxis This pathology is recommended to promptly treat existing infectious diseases, observe sexual hygiene, normalize the regularity of sexual life, and also maintain a high level of physical activity.
Acute prostatitis: diagnosis and treatment
Acute prostatitis is a common inflammatory disease caused by exposure to the prostate gland of various representatives of the infectious flora. At first, such an inflammatory reaction takes place in the catarrhal form, but then it can become purulent. The clinical picture in this pathology includes pain, general intoxication and dysuric disorders. With timely diagnosis and properly selected etiotropic therapy, this condition has a favorable prognosis. In neglected cases, as we have already said, it can be complicated by the formation of an abscess or the transition of the inflammatory reaction to the chronic form. As for the chronic form, it directly threatens the reproductive function of men.
Among all male diseases, acute prostatitis occupies one of the leading positions. According to statistics, more than thirty percent of men who are in the age range from thirty to fifty years old face him at least once. In addition to the abscess and the transition to the chronic form, this disease may be complicated by the spread of the inflammatory reaction to other organs of the urogenital system, such as the testicles or the bladder. All of the above makes this problem extremely relevant to medicine.
As we have said, acute prostatitis has an infectious nature. Various representatives of specific or nonspecific bacterial flora play their role in this case. Most often, an inflammatory reaction localized in the prostate gland is still caused by non-specific bacteria, for example, staphylococci or streptococci, E. coli, proteins, and so on. Somewhat less often, this disease is associated with pathogens of sexually transmitted infections, namely, gonococci, chlamydia and some other microorganisms.
In the overwhelming majority of cases, the infectious flora in this disease falls into the region of the prostate gland through its excretory ducts from the urethra. Thus, the main predisposing factor is the primary inflammatory process, localized in the urethra. Somewhat less bacteria spread from the bladder. The likelihood of developing this pathology is significantly increased when carrying out any medical procedures, for example, when installing a catheter or endoscopic examination.
Separately, it should be said that sometimes the occurrence of acute prostatitis is due to the hematogenous spread of infectious flora. In this case, the bacteria from the primary remote focus, for example, in the gallbladder, erupt into the bloodstream and reach the prostate. Lymphogenous infection is also possible, although much less frequently.
There are a large number of factors that significantly increase the likelihood of developing this disease. In the first place - it is stagnation in the pelvic area. Irregular sex life, frequent change of sexual partners, interrupted sexual intercourse - all this contributes to the emergence of an acute inflammatory process in the prostate gland. Other predisposing factors include low levels of motor activity, hypothermia, frequent constipation, and so on.
In the course of acute prostatitis, several successive stages are distinguished. The first stage is called catarrhal. The inflammatory reaction is localized in the excretory ducts of the prostate and is manifested by the swelling of their walls. The next stage is follicular. It is characterized by the progression of inflammation, due to which there is a suppuration of individual lobules. At the third or parenchymal stage, a multiple lesion of the lobules and the spread of the inflammatory reaction to parenchymal tissue is detected. Everything ends with an abscessing stage, in which a large purulent focus forms in the tissues of the prostate gland.
Symptoms characteristic of acute prostatitis
Symptoms for this disease will directly depend on its stage. In the catarrhal stage, a sick person indicates discomfort and mild pain, localized in the perineal region. There are frequent urge to urinate, and the process itself is also accompanied by pain. In this case, the general condition of the patient is not broken.
The follicular stage is characterized by a significant increase in pain. It begins to spread to the genitals, the sacrum and the anus. The process of urination is difficult due to pain, the same applies to the act of defecation. It is mandatory to determine the symptoms indicating the presence of a general intoxication syndrome. They are febrile fever, weakness, chills, loss of appetite, and so on.
The parenchymal stage is accompanied by exactly the same symptoms that have an even greater degree of severity. Pain when urinating and trying to empty the intestines is extremely intense, against the background of which there are constipation, bloating and so on. The patient, in an attempt to reduce pain, takes a forced position on the side with the legs brought to the stomach. Directly the prostate itself is sharply enlarged.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
This disease is diagnosed on the basis of a whole range of additional studies. Digital rectal examination due to pain is not always possible to hold. The leading role is assigned to ultrasound. Additionally, it is recommended to assign a general urine test and its bacteriological culture to determine the pathogen. Sometimes PCR diagnosis is performed.
Acute prostatitis is an indication for prescribing antibacterial drugs depending on the sensitivity of the secreted flora. In parallel, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antispasmodics are used, detoxification measures are carried out. After the acute inflammatory reaction has been stopped, various physiotherapeutic methods are used.
Prevention of acute prostatitis
For prophylaxis Development of this pathology should only practice protected sex, timely treat sexually transmitted infections, and also eliminate nonspecific inflammatory foci present in the urogenital system.